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PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY II (Theory)



UNIT-I



1. Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination


Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.












UNIT-II



General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following secondary metabolites:




Phenylpropanoids and Flavonoids: Lignans, Tea, Ruta










Tannins: Catechu, Pterocarpus












UNIT-III



1. Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents




UNIT-IV





UNIT-V



1. Basics of Phytochemistry




UNIT-I


Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination


a) Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.


b) Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies.


UNIT-II

General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following secondary metabolites:


Alkaloids: Vinca, Rauwolfia, Belladonna, Opium,


Phenylpropanoids and Flavonoids: Lignans, Tea, Ruta


Steroids, Cardiac Glycosides & Triterpenoids: Liquorice, Dioscorea, Digitalis


Volatile oils: Mentha, Clove, Cinnamon, Fennel, Coriander,


Tannins: Catechu, Pterocarpus


Resins: Benzoin, Guggul, Ginger, Asafoetida, Myrrh, Colophony


Glycosides: Senna, Aloes, Bitter Almond


Iridoids, Other terpenoids & Naphthaquinones: Gentian, Artemisia, taxus, carotenoids


UNIT-III

Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents

a) Terpenoids: Menthol, Citral, Artemisin

b) Glycosides: Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin

c) Alkaloids: Atropine, Quinine, Reserpine, Caffeine

d) Resins: Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin


UNIT-IV

Industrial production, estimation and utilization of the following phytoconstituents: Forskolin, Sennoside, Artemisinin, Diosgenin, Digoxin, Atropine, Podophyllotoxin, Caffeine, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinblastine.


UNIT V

Basics of Phytochemistry Modern methods of extraction, application of latest techniques like Spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification and identification of crude drugs.



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#pharmacognosyandphytochemistry #bpharm #pharmacy #pcisyllabus









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