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PHARMACEUTICS- I (Theory)




UNIT – I



1. Historical background and development of profession of pharmacy




2. Dosage forms




3. Prescription




4. Posology




5. Pediatric dose calculations based on age, body weight and body surface area




UNIT – II



1. Pharmaceutical calculations






2. Powders










UNIT – III



1. Monophasic liquids








3. Emulsions




UNIT – IV




1. Suppositories




2. Pharmaceutical incompatibilities




UNIV – V



1. Semisolid dosage forms






UNIT – I

• Historical background and development of profession of pharmacy: History of profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to pharmacy education, industry and organization, Pharmacy as a career, Pharmacopoeias: Introduction to IP, BP, USP and Extra Pharmacopoeia.

• Dosage forms: Introduction to dosage forms, classification and definitions • Prescription: Definition, Parts of prescription, handling of Prescription and Errors in prescription.

• Posology: Definition, Factors affecting posology. Pediatric dose calculations based on age, body weight and body surfacearea.


UNIT – II

• Pharmaceutical calculations: Weights and measures – Imperial & Metric system, Calculations involving percentage solutions, alligation, proof spirit and isotonic solutions based on freezing point and molecular weight.

• Powders: Definition, classification, advantages and disadvantages,Simple & compound powders – official preparations, dusting powders, effervescent, efflorescent and hygroscopic powders, eutectic mixtures. Geometric dilutions.

• Liquid dosage forms: Advantages and disadvantages of liquid dosage forms. Excipients used in formulation of liquid dosage forms. Solubility enhancement techniques


UNIT – III

• Monophasic liquids: Definitions and preparations of Gargles, Mouthwashes, Throat Paint, Eardrops, Nasal drops, Enemas, Syrups, Elixirs, Liniments and Lotions.

• Biphasic liquids:

• Suspensions: Definition, advantages and disadvantages, classifications, Preparation of suspensions; Flocculated and Deflocculated suspension & stability problems and methods to overcome.

• Emulsions: Definition, classification, emulsifying agent, test for the identification of type ofEmulsion, Methods of preparation & stability problems and methods to overcome.


UNIT – IV

• Suppositories: Definition, types, advantages and disadvantages, types of bases, methods of preparations. Displacement value & its calculations, evaluation of suppositories.

• Pharmaceutical incompatibilities: Definition, classification, physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities with examples.


UNIV – V

• Semisolid dosage forms: Definitions, classification, mechanisms and factors influencing dermal penetration of drugs. Preparation of ointments, pastes, creams and gels. Excipients used in semi solid dosage forms. Evaluation of semi solid dosages forms.


HOW TO STUDY EFFECTIVELY:

  1. Get organised

  2. Pay attention in class

  3. Steer clear of distractions

  4. Make sure notes are complete

  5. Ask questions if you don't understand

  6. Make a study schedule/plan

  7. Review notes from class every evening

  8. Talk to teachers

  9. Designate a study area

  10. Study in short bursts

  11. Simplify study notes

  12. Study with a group.

Ideas for active studying include:

  • Create a study guide by topic. Formulate questions and problems and write complete answers. Create your own quiz.

  • Become a teacher. Say the information aloud in your own words as if you are the instructor and teaching the concepts to a class.

  • Derive examples that relate to your own experiences.

  • Create concept maps or diagrams that explain the material.

  • Develop symbols that represent concepts.

  • For non-technical classes (e.g., English, History, Psychology), figure out the big ideas so you can explain, contrast, and re-evaluate them.

  • For technical classes, work the problems and explain the steps and why they work.

  • Study in terms of question, evidence, and conclusion: What is the question posed by the instructor/author? What is the evidence that they present? What is the conclusion?


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