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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-II



Unit I



1. Nervous system






Unit II




1. Digestive system
















2. Energetics








Unit III




1. Respiratory system














2. Urinary system














Unit IV









Unit V




1. Reproductive system




2. Introduction to genetics








Unit I


• Nervous system

Organization of nervous system, neuron, neuroglia, classification and properties of nerve fibre, electrophysiology, action potential, nerve impulse, receptors, synapse, neurotransmitters. Central nervous system: Meninges, ventricles of brain and cerebrospinal fluid.structure and functions of brain (cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum), spinal cord (gross structure, functions of afferent and efferent nerve tracts, reflex activity)


Unit II


• Digestive system

Anatomy of GI Tract with special reference to anatomy and functions of stomach, (Acid production in the stomach, regulation of acid production through parasympathetic nervous system, pepsin role in protein digestion) small intestine and large intestine, anatomy and functions of salivary glands, pancreas and liver, movements of GIT, digestion and absorption of nutrients and disorders of GIT.


• Energetics

Formation and role of ATP, Creatinine Phosphate and BMR.


Unit III

• Respiratory system

Anatomy of respiratory system with special reference to anatomy of lungs, mechanism of respiration, regulation of respiration


Lung Volumes and capacities transport of respiratory gases, artificial respiration, and resuscitation methods.


• Urinary system Anatomy of urinary tract with special reference to anatomy of kidney and nephrons, functions of kidney and urinary tract, physiology of urine formation, micturition reflex and role of kidneys in acid base balance, role of RAS in kidney and disorders of kidney.


Unit IV


• Endocrine system

Classification of hormones, mechanism of hormone action, structure and functions of pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus and their disorders.


Unit V


• Reproductive system

Anatomy of male and female reproductive system, Functions of male and female reproductive system, sex hormones, physiology of menstruation, fertilization, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy and parturition


• Introduction to genetics

Chromosomes, genes and DNA, protein synthesis, genetic pattern of inheritance.


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