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BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS (Theory)



UNIT-I



1. Introduction to Biopharmaceutics










Second material




UNIT-II










UNIT-III



Second material




UNIT-IV




Second material




UNIT-V






UNIT-I

Introduction to Biopharmaceutics

Absorption; Mechanisms of drug absorption through GIT, factors influencing drug absorption though GIT, absorption of drug from Non per oral extra-vascular routes, Distribution Tissue permeability of drugs, binding of drugs, apparent, volume of drug distribution, plasma and tissue protein binding of drugs, factors affecting protein-drug binding. Kinetics of protein binding, Clinical significance of protein binding of drugs


UNIT- II

Elimination: Drug metabolism and basic understanding metabolic pathways renal excretion of drugs, factors affecting renal excretion of drugs, renal clearance, Non renal routes of drug excretion of drugs


Bioavailability and Bioequivalence: Definition and Objectives of bioavailability, absolute and relative bioavailability, measurement of bioavailability, in-vitro drug dissolution models, in-vitro-in-vivo correlations, bioequivalence studies, methods to enhance the dissolution rates and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.


UNIT- III

Pharmacokinetics: Definition and introduction to Pharmacokinetics, Compartment models, Non compartment models, physiological models, One compartment open model. (a). Intravenous Injection (Bolus) (b). Intravenous infusion and (c) Extra vascular administrations. Pharmacokinetics parameters - KE ,t1/2,Vd,AUC,Ka, Clt and CLR- definitions methods of eliminations, understanding of their significance and application


UNIT- IV

Multicompartment models: Two compartment open model. IV bolus, Kinetics of multiple dosing, steady state drug levels, calculation of loading and mainetnance doses and their significance in clinical settings.


UNIT- V

Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics:

a. Introduction,

b. Factors causing Non-linearity.

c. Michaelis-menton method of estimating parameters, Explanation with example of drugs.



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