Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids and proteins.
• Bioenergetics Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy, enthalpy and entropy; Redox potential. Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP
• Carbohydrate metabolism
Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics and significance
Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance
HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its significance
Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus
• Biological oxidation:
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.
Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level phosphorylation.
Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers.
• Lipid metabolism
β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)
Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis
De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)
Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormone and vitamin D
Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and obesity.
• Amino acid metabolism
General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation, urea cycle and its disorders
Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (Phenyketonuria, Albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia)
Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline
Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice
• Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer
Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides
Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease
Organization of mammalian genome
Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions
DNA replication (semi conservative model) Transcription or RNA synthesis
Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors
Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes
Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot)
Enzyme inhibitors with examples
Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation
Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes
Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions