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BIOCHEMISTRY (THEORY)



UNIT I






UNIT II





UNIT III





UNIT IV





UNIT V





UNIT I


• Biomolecules

Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids and proteins.


• Bioenergetics Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy, enthalpy and entropy; Redox potential. Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP


UNIT II


• Carbohydrate metabolism

Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics and significance

Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance

HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD)

Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its significance

Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus


• Biological oxidation:

Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.

Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level phosphorylation.

Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers.


UNIT III

• Lipid metabolism

β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)

Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis

De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)

Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormone and vitamin D

Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and obesity.


• Amino acid metabolism

General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation, urea cycle and its disorders

Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (Phenyketonuria, Albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia)

Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline

Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice


UNIT IV


• Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer

Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides

Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease

Organization of mammalian genome

Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions

DNA replication (semi conservative model) Transcription or RNA synthesis

Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors


UNIT V

• Enzymes

Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes

Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot)

Enzyme inhibitors with examples

Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation

Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes

Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions


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