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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-I (Theory)



UNIT I



1. Introduction to human body




2. Cellular level of organization













3. Tissue level of organization




UNIT II



1. Integumentary system




2. Skeletal system














UNIT III



  1. Body fluids and blood


























2. Lymphatic system











Unit IV



1. Peripheral nervous system




2. Special senses


















Unit V



1. Cardiovascular system





Unit I

• Introduction to human body Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.

• Cellular level of organization Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent b) Paracrine c) Synaptic d) Endocrine

• Tissue level of organization Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.


Unit II

• Integumentary system Structure and functions of skin

• Skeletal system Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction

• Joints Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation


Unit III

• Body fluids and blood

• Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo endothelialsystem.


• Lymphatic system

Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system


Unit IV


Peripheral nervous system:

Classification of peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.

• Special senses Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.


Unit V

• Cardiovascular system

Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.


WHY WE STUDY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY TOGETHER


Anatomy and physiology aren't always studied together. However, it's important to understand how the structure (form, or anatomy) of an organism is related to its function (physiology. Through many years, organisms have evolved because they have a higher level of fitness in the environment. The result of this natural selection is that organisms, as seen today, look the way they do because of their physiology, and vice versa.

For example, at the cellular level, consider a protein, a complex macromolecule made up of a sequence of amino acids. The actual shape (form) is what allows it to do its job within the body. In fact, its shape is everything! This is because it serves a purpose that solely depends on its shape.

Anatomy can be studied without focusing too closely on how everything works. After all, anatomy is just the physical structure of an organism. Physiology, however, is a bit different because it's hard to understand how the organism functions if it's not understood how it looks. In other words, studying physiology without having at least a rudimentary understanding of the big picture and histology (the "small" picture, or microscopic anatomy) will be incredibly difficult to conceptualize.



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