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1. Pharmaceutical analysis

2. Errors

3. Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.


1. Acid base titration

2. Non aqueous titration


1. Precipitation titrations

2. Complexometric titration

3. Gravimetry

4. Basic Principles, methods and application of diazotisation titration


1. Redox titrations


1. Electrochemical methods of analysis


(a) Pharmaceutical analysis- Definition and scope i) Different techniques of analysis ii) Methods of expressing concentration iii) Primary and secondarystandards. iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammoniumsulphate

(b)Errors: Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures

(c)Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.


• Acid base titration: Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves

• Non aqueous titration: Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl.

• Determination of moisture content by Karl fisher titration.


• Precipitation titrations: Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.

• Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.

• Gravimetry: Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.

• Basic Principles, methods and application of diazotisation titration.


Redox titrations

(a) Concepts of oxidation and reduction (b) Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications) Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate


Electrochemical methods of analysis

• Conductometry- Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.

• Potentiometry - Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration and applications.

• Polarography - Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications


1. Identify the type of mistakes you make – Mistakes can be unintentional i.e. without your awareness about the mistake or by deliberate intentions which means you are knowingly following a pattern to make mistakes. Identification of mistakes and its type is urgent because if students do not recognise their mistakes then they would never be able to overcome it. So, students should identify their mistakes as –

Unintentional or innocent mistakes – You are putting all your efforts, still, you get bad results

Deliberate mistakes – Your carelessness and lack of efforts which ultimately result in bad scores

The outcome for both mistakes is same but in case of unintentional mistakes need help from others and in case of deliberate mistakes, only students can help themselves if they want better results.

2. Understand and reason your mistakes – After categorising your mistakes, you need to justify them by reasoning it. By doing this, you’ll understand the basic reason for your mistake and would willingly try to overcome these mistakes. Getting an understanding of your mistakes makes you responsible enough and you take ownership of it. So, Reason and understand in order to recover from mistakes.

3. Work on recovering from mistakes and self-esteem – Whenever, we make a mistake and get a bad result from these mistakes, our morale is affected. We feel that getting over from these mistakes would not be possible and lose our self-confidence to even try improving on our mistakes. But, whenever you make a mistake, always remember there is another chance to correct yourself. You should try again, take chance to recover from your mistakes with your self-confidence.

For example, you get an answer incorrect, and then you should rectify the error and try that question again to get the correct answer. With regular practice of this technique, you’ll overcome the mistakes you have been doing over and over again.

4. Get your mistakes reviewed by teachers at school – Sometimes; we cannot identify our mistakes on our own. When you are getting a poor result every time, like getting fewer marks in tests then don’t ignore this, do not think that you still can get next time better when you are not trying to rectify the errors. In case you are not able to understand what the actual reason is then, you should ask your teachers about your mistakes. Not just the red marks for incorrect answers on your test paper but also, the reason why are getting low marks.

5. Sometimes, allow mistakes – we definitely learn from our mistakes as these errors give us a different understanding of the problems. We explore new ways to do something different then what we all have been following to deal with the same things. To allow mistakes, students need to solve a problem from different approach so that even if you make a set of mistakes, you are learning new ways to solve these problems as well as covering the entire concept to the core. This will help you in criticising your answers and you will be sure if the questions are asked of these concepts then, you will be able to face them. Also, mistakes help us overcome the fear of failing next time.

6. Take corrective action on time – Do not delay the action to recover from the mistakes you make. As the more you delay your corrective actions, the more mistakes you will be making with the same understanding.

7. Self-evaluation is the key to find what mistakes you make – You should criticise yourself to find your mistakes and then, take corrective measures to overcome these flaws. Find the root cause of your mistakes to analyse better and learn from your mistakes which will help you in improving your performance.


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